When in doubt (or not), always ask the user
There’s a common misconception that user testing is super expensive and highly complex — only adding to the overall expense of the project and providing little value to be justifiable. It certainly does hold tremendous value and it doesn’t have to involve a large group of test subjects unless many distinctly different user groups have been identified. Jacob Nielsen points out that “Zero users provide zero insights.” This most definitely holds true no matter how you spin it.
Every project can certainly launch without being tested and we can hope that the entire team made the right choices for the users involved. The alternative is to identify potential pitfalls and issues before it’s out there on the marketplace, before a lot of money and effort have been spent and before phase 2.0 to address those pesky UX issues that could seriously prevent conversion.
The why, the who and the what
The development of a usability testing requires a little preparation and focus — often referred to as a user testing plan.
- Why — This is where we outline the objectives of the usability test and align these objectives with one or multiple goals of the project.
- Who — How many user groups should be represented and how many should be involved in each group?
- What — What types of tasks should we test and how many?
Now that we have covered the groundwork; next in line is how the usability test will be conducted. There are several methods that can be applied based on the project timeline, scope and client preference.
- Heuristic Evaluation — Best performed with a small group of users, a heuristic evaluation is the extremely quick and very cost-effective method of usability testing. A group of about 5 evaluators can critique the usability so that we can quickly refine and adjust any usability issues.
- Direct Observation — With direct observation in a lab setting, we experience first-hand how the user feels, reacts and experiences specific tasks. Generally, this type of setting involves one-on-one interviews and talk-out-loud sessions with each participant. On the flip side of the lab setting is a somewhat rogue but super effective method for mobile research and testing, direct observation in the field or shall we say testing on the streets? It’s perfect since a lab setting for mobile app testing won’t quite do the trick. The in-the-field approach really offers some context in terms of mobile device usage and adds the realism of the actual location. No matter if the test occurs in a lab or out on the streets, direct observation does garner user feedback that could potentially be missed when using other usability testing methods.
The importance of the right participants
Now that we have ironed out the methodology and type of usability test, it’s time to decide how to recruit the participants. This too is a critical step as our research results will only be as good as the participants involved in the test.
- Lean participant testing — Jakob Nielsen notes that “The maximum benefit-cost ratio is achieved when using between three and five subject, …” The methodology being that you can greatly reduce the overhead of testing as well as test more frequently with a smaller group. Performing multiple tests allows for a true iterative design approach.
- Appropriate participants — Screening of the participants is another vital element of a successful usability test. It’s far more important to focus on the participant’s behavior and attitude rather than the known demographics of the project’s user groups.
- Participant incentives — It’s great to know that there is a desire to be heard, but ultimately an incentive will prevent no-shows and possibly encourage a participant to return for the second round if needed. Small gift cards are a great way to provide that incentive to show up and truly feel valued for providing vital feedback. Of course there are all kinds of ways to compensate the participants, depending on the time requested as well as what is being tested, we like being inventive here and make it worth everyone’s time spent.
Getting ready for test day
Now it’s time to create the framework of the usability test — what are we going to ask the lucky participants and how are these questions going to be carried out?
- Pre-session questions — These questions are kept quite general. Most include a sprinkling of demographic information and first impressions of what the participant is viewing.
- Task-based questions — These questions are the core of hands-on user testing. They ask the participant to carry out a specific task or realistic scenarios while they share their thoughts and experience out loud as tasks are completed. All task-based questions should be simple and non-leading so as not bias the participant’s response or taint the test results.
- Post-session questions — This is when the participant is asked to share their overall impression of a given feature or system. Like their pre-session counterparts, these questions should remain general, but focus on the tested system rather than participant information.
Conducting usability testing
Before the actual date, we like to perform a dry run to iron out any potential kinks in the test script, but also to ensure that all equipment is working flawlessly. Any interruptions during the actual test can influence our results.
It’s time for the test! First, there’s a warm welcome to make the participant feel at ease and next we begin with our pre-determined set of questions. After each test, we make sure to summarize our findings and observations, highlighting the likes/dislikes, the expected/unexpected and pinpointing the friction points as well as the successes.
Ready for testing? Let the fun begin and let’s get the user feedback we need!